Measuring blood pressure is determined by two values: the upper, or systolic pressure (the pressure in blood vessels when the heart contract and full strength push the blood through the arteries) or lower and diastolic (the pressure in blood vessels between the heart, the moment when the heart is completely relaxed) . Blood is pushed through arteries based on pressure difference that exists between the heart and small blood vessels in the peripheral tissues. Pressure values are constantly changing depending on the daily activities, stress, amount of adrenaline, fluids and salts in the circulation.
It is considered that the ideal pressure of 120/80 mmHg. Values of systolic pressure of 120-139 and diastolic of 80-89 mmHg called pre-hypertension and they do not require treatment. The values of 140/90 mmHg are defined as hypertension and require treatment.
On the other hand, there are no defined values below which it is said that a person has low blood pressure. Under low blood pressure (hypotension) we include values that are significantly lower than those in which the body is used to. The matter of low pressure is relative term, because one may have a lower pressure than the average for his age, and to be perfectly healthy (athletes and trained individuals).
Low blood pressure is a problem only if it reflects negatively on the body. The term Hypotension used only when the pressure falls too low, and blood cannot be in sufficient quantity to reach every part of the body, especially to the brain, resulting in dizziness, drowsiness, general, and extremely the loss of consciousness.
Of course, the people who usually have lower values of pressure, the critical limit is reached more easily. Most often this is happening at a fast rising from the bed or chair. Normal blood pressure response to rapidly rising from bed is fall of systolic pressure of 10 mmHg and a slight jump diastolic pressure (about 2.5 mmHg).
The first step in treatment is the elimination of the causes of hypotension. First you need to gradually increase daily intake of water, and then salt (up to seven grams per day, not more than 10 grams).
It is necessary also to create a habit that changes body positions are performed slowly. Before rising from bed several times bend the foot upwards, wear elastic stockings that are recommended for people with weak veins, exercise physical activity, eat more often, but smaller quantities.
It is important to avoid long-standing position without changing the body, rapidly rising, heavy meals, alcohol, non-ventilated and heated rooms. You should avoid dehydration, working with hands above the head and hyperventilation.
Only if these measures do not give the results you should be thinking about taking drugs, with the advice of doctors and with control. Medication used are hormonal preparations or other substances that can have many side effects.
Factors that cause or create a predisposition for low pressure, and they can be eliminated are: bleeding, taking excessive doses of drugs for the decrease of pressure, allergic reactions, infections, emotional stress, pain, taking antidepressants, heart disease and so on. However, the most common is dehydration, especially during the summer heat.
A person with low pressure should drink at least three liters of water a day, instead of drugs, at the time of exhaustion to eat salty cucumber or any salty food with two or three glasses of water. Healthy kidneys will remove all excess water.